Aleksandr Matveev | Dreamstime
Thiti Tangjitsangiem | Dreamstime
'Availability of new foundry sand is already becoming a challenge, along with the need of providing new solutions to waste management,” according to the director of a metallurgical research center.
Branimir Ritonja | Dreamstime
Automotive cast parts.
Seesea | Dreamstime
Fire photo
Jacek Sopotnicki | Dreamstime
With deoxidized base iron, carbon levels can be increased to 3.30% C and alloying can be completely or nearly eliminated at the same time.
Simone Neuhold / RHI Magnesita
Many refractory products are custom-developed and manufactured for particular applications, and also usually contaminated with material they have absorbed while lining furnaces or ladles, which makes the recycling process a challenge.

Light, Rigid, and Accurate at Supersonic Speed

Oct. 13, 2014
The F-35 Lightning II Electro-Optical Targeting System performs precision air-to-air and air-to-surface targeting.

The F-35 Lightning II, with its Electro-Optical Targeting System positioned below the pilot at the front of the fuselage, and shielded by a sapphire glass window.

The Electro-Optical Targeting System (EOTS, pronounced “ee-otz”) for the F-35 Lightning II is a lightweight, multi-function system that performs precision air-to-air and air-to-surface targeting for the stealth-equipped combat aircraft. The low-drag, stealthy EOTS is integrated into the F-35’s fuselage, shielded by a sapphire glass window and linked to the aircraft's integrated central computer through a high-speed fiber-optic interface.

Electro-optical systems use a combination of electronics and optics to generate, detect, and/or measure radiation in the optical spectrum. Lasers are commonly used as part of EO systems and can emit radiation from the entire the optical spectrum, including as a targeting tool for missiles, with the emitted radiation being scattered by the target. Scattered radiation is detected by the missile as it enters the general vicinity of the target, and can be used to give the missile a more accurate read on the location.

The F-35 EOTS system is housed in a lightweight beryllium-aluminum structure, a material selected because of its “specific stiffness,” i.e., the material’s elastic module divided by its density, which results in a light but remarkable stable structure that supports the system’s requirement for stability in the critical task of locating, sighting, and fixing a target on the fast-moving jet.

According to the developers, the F-35’s EOTS is first sensor to combine forward-looking infrared and infrared search and track functionality, thereby enhancing the pilots’ situational awareness, and allowing aircrews to identify areas of interest, perform reconnaissance, and deliver laser and GPS-guided weapons with precision.

Lockheed Martin confirms it has delivered more than 130 systems for the F-35 Lightning II.

The beryllium-aluminum structure, originally milled from ingots produced from powder metals and formed by hot isostatic pressing, has been converted to a series of investment castings designed by Lockheed Martin and two foundries — IBC Engineered Materials and Materion Brush Beryllium & Composites.